2 edition of analytical study of radar returns in the presence of a rough sea surface found in the catalog.
analytical study of radar returns in the presence of a rough sea surface
Harold Roy Raemer
|Series||NRL report -- 8369|
|Contributions||Naval Research Laboratory (U.S.). Target Characteristics Branch|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||iii, 92 p. :|
|Number of Pages||92|
Elements of interpretation of radar imagery can be found in several publications for example, in "The use of Side-Looking Airborne Radar imagery for the production of a land use and vegetation study of Nigeria" (Allen, ). Grey levels in a radar image are related to the microwave backscattering properties of the surface. STUDY. PLAY. GPS (advantages and disadvantages) - a constellation of earth orbiting satellites maintained by the US to define geographic position on and above the surface of the earth. Advantages: Extremely accurate worldwide 24 hour coverage sea: adjustable filter which blocks unwanted RADAR return caused by sea clutter.
Important over the continent in night and morning hours, over the sea in clear weather whole days, if the air at the sea surface is colder and damper than in layers lain more highly Table 1: Classification of the refraction in the earth's atmosphere. (iii) Radar cross section of Target (May/June ) (a) Describe how threshold level for detection is decided in the presence of receiver noise for a specified probability of occurrence of false alarms. (b) Describe the effect of Pulse repetition frequency on the estimated unambiguous range of radar. (November )
Modiﬁcation of surface properties over multiple length scales plays an important role in optimizing a material’s performance for a given application. For instance, the cosmetic appearance of a surface and its absorption properties can be controlled by altering its texture [1,2] and presence of chemical impurities in the surface . Voltzinger & Androsov used a 3-dimensional (3-D) model to simulate the reef at ° N in the Gulf of Suez. The modern reef at approximately 10 m deep was raised to a uniform depth of 3 m below sea level. They suggested that wind blowing initially from the Northeast gradually changed direction to blow from the Northwest, becoming aligned with the axis of the Gulf.
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Get this from a library. An analytical study of radar returns in the presence of a rough sea surface. [Harold Roy Raemer; Naval Research Laboratory (U.S.). Target Characteristics Branch.]. the Joint Ocean Surface Study (JOSS I) sponsored by the Naval Oceanographic Office.
The 4FR System was employed to obtain calibrated sea return data for various sea states as a function of radar wavelength, polarization, and depression angle. Sea surface effects on the radar return from a periscope Abstract: A physically motivated model of the radar signal return from a submarine periscope in the sea is proposed.
The periscope is modelled in terms of a metal cylinder, and the way in which this reflector combines with the rough sea surface Cited by: 4. It is a measure of the ratio between the transmitted power and the power of the return pulse received by the altimeter. It can be shown that the returned power and hence σ 0 depend only on the radar scattering characteristics or ‘roughness’ of the target area.
The sea surface roughness increases with wind speed. A Backscattering Model of Rainfall Over Rough Sea Surface for Synthetic Aperture Radar Abstract: Spaceborne high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a potential powerful tool for rainfall pattern and intensity observations over the sea surface.
However, many interesting rain-related phenomena revealed by SAR images are still not fully Cited by: To solve this propagation-scattering problem in the radar microwave domain, the physical optics (PO) approximation is applied to determine the currents on the rough sea surface.
Next, to solve the. Radar - Radar - Factors affecting radar performance: The performance of a radar system can be judged by the following: (1) the maximum range at which it can see a target of a specified size, (2) the accuracy of its measurement of target location in range and angle, (3) its ability to distinguish one target from another, (4) its ability to detect the desired target echo when masked by large.
The C-band radar observations in this study, particularly, results in Figure 7(b), and the coherence results in Figures 8(a)–8(c), further support the need to consider ambiguity caused by the azimuth angle when considering the derivation of sea state from polarimetric radar.
Coastline extraction from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is difficult because of the presence of speckle noise and strong signal returns from the wind-roughened and wave-modulated sea surface.
High resolution and weather change independent of SAR data lead to better monitoring of coastal : PhD in Electronics Engineering. In this study the authors present a parabolic equation modeling method for calculating the electromagnetic wave propagation over rough sea surfaces. Firstly, the rough sea surface is generated by building a double summation model of three-dimensional random sea surface.
Satellite radar imagery can be used for offshore oil basin reconnaissance using this technique. Oil seeping from depth forms a film on the sea surface that dampens the backscatter roughness relative to surrounding areas.
These areas of surface oil appear darker in amplitude images. Books at Amazon. The Books homepage helps you explore Earth's Biggest Bookstore without ever leaving the comfort of your couch. Here you'll find current best sellers in books, new releases in books, deals in books, Kindle eBooks, Audible audiobooks, and so much more.
• Radar coordinate systems spherical polar: (r,θ,φ) azimuth/elevation: (Az,El) or • The radar is located at the origin of the coordinate system; the Earth's surface lies in the x-y plane. • Azimuth (α) is generally measured clockwise from a reference (like a compass) but. The time required for an echo to return can be roughly converted to distance if the speed of sound is known.
RADAR PRINCIPAL Radar uses electromagnetic energy pulses. The radio-frequency (RF) energy is transmitted to and reflected from the reflecting object. A small portion of the reflected energy returns to the radar set. an echo to return can be roughly converted to distance if the speed of sound is known.
Radar uses electromagnetic energy pulses in much the same way, as shown in Figure 3. The radio-frequency (RF) energy is transmitted to and reflected from the reflecting object.
A small portion of the reflected energy returns to the radar set. This book examines the statistics of radar scattering from the sea surface in terms of their relevance to radar operating in a maritime environment; including remote sensing, surveillance and targeting appliances.
A lot of the work in the book iss based on the compound K-distribution model for the amplitude statistics of sea clutter. In addition, the book addresses the specification of. Access quality crowd-sourced study materials tagged to courses at universities all over the world and get homework help from our tutors when you need it.
Discover why more than 10 million students and educators use Course Hero. As a member, you get immediate access to. Sea Clutter: Scattering, the K Distribution and Radar Performance, 2nd Edition gives an authoritative account of our current understanding of radar sea clutter.
Topics covered include the characteristics of radar sea clutter, modelling radar scattering by the ocean surface, statistical models of sea clutter, the simulation of clutter and other random processes, detection of small targets in. A number of persistent full reversal episodes of the surface inflow were analyzed in terms of triggering synoptic conditions and the related wind-driven circulation patterns.
High sea level pressures and intense (above 10 ms −1), permanent and spatially-uniform easterlies prevailed over the study domain during the AJ collapse events.
calm water: smooth surface, low backscatter rough sea: increased backscatter due to wind and current effects The radar backscattering coefficient σ 0 provides information about the imaged surface.
It is a function of: radar observation parameters: (frequency f, polarisation p and incidence angle of the electromagnetic waves emitted). The radar beam bends upwards, resulting in a reduced radar horizon.
Super Refraction When there is a warm layer of air above a cooler layer close to the surface, the radar beam curves markedly downwards towards the surface, offering a superior detection ranges.
The radar is Ku band with a wavelength of – cm. The noise is equal to roughly one wavelength at the highest frequency in the Ku band. The are claiming an accuracy of mm. This provides a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of Most analytical people agree that instruments can provide meaningful data with an SNR of  An analysis of radar observations in C band combined with models is proposed to study some of the ocean surface properties and their relation with the sea surface backscatter.
The electromagnetic part of the models is of different kinds: composite Bragg model with or without including effect of wave breaking zones on the normalized radar cross‐section (NRCS), geometrical optics.